Continuity and rupture in the Russian elite

The latter phases of Soviet totalitarianism witnessed a massive increase in the size of alreadybloated state bureaucracy. The Communist Party's so-called nomenklatura grew in size and incompetence. Though the collapse of the Soviet system hinted at fundamental change, the hope proved illusory. Instead, Vladimir Putin has turned the clock back and revived the nomenklatura, turning modern Russia into a state that represents ‘authoritarianism without modernization’.

 

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