When we speak of jihadism, Islamic State (IS) or al-Qae- da, the images that imme- diately come to mind have been more or less the same for the past two decades: those places and those faces that have been etched into our minds by the long videos posted by Osama Bin Laden in the wake of 11 September 2001 and, much more recently, the grim beheadings by Jihadi John or the wonton executions in the Palmira theatre. Deserts and dusty Arab cities; men wearing turbans or black hoods, brandishing scimitars and Kalash- nikovs and sporting long beards. 

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