Fifteen years after the inter- national military operation in the country began and fol- lowing heavy human casual- ties and a collective economic effort without precedent in history (greater than the Marshall plan instituted after World War II), Afghanistan is still a country tottering between a stalemate and a rout. No later than 2003, US President George W. Bush’s administration was celebrating having successfully freed the country from the clutches of the reactionary Taliban regime, ensuring a future of freedom and development. 

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