If the laws don’t change, Italy can guarantee at least one thing to its partners and markets for the foreseeable future: ungovernability. Former president Giorgio Napolitano attempted to smooth over the difficulties that the country has found itself in during this endless economic crisis and to realign Italy with Europe. But his efforts failed, and Italians must now come to terms with reality. The efforts of Italy’s president were decisive in all of the key political moments of recent years, but thus far have not led to any positive outcomes. Napolitano tried to work together with the Democratic Party (PD), but these attempts at collaboration ultimately led to choices that, fuelled by the economic crisis, allowed the Five Star Movement to burst onto the scene.

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