The ability to attribute malicious cyber incidents to an individual, group or nation state is a critical tool that is shaping foreign and defence policies on both sides of the Atlantic.

In the United States, the hacking of the Democratic National Convention and the subsequent political struggle regarding how to adequately deal with Russia’s interference in the 2016 US presidential election is still wreaking havoc across Washington. In the latest fallout, the US Congress overwhelmingly approved a new sanctions bill, which targets Moscow for undermining the cybersecurity of the United States. Meanwhile, despite multiple US intelligence assessments pointing the finger straight at the Kremlin, President Trump is still flip-flopping on the issue.

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