For a couple of decades, the nuclear question has shifted into the background of political discussions as a result of the post-Cold War peace dividend and a focus on counterinsurgency and expeditionary warfare. But governments from Berlin to London have once again begun to think about nuclear umbrellas, deterrence and mutually assured destruction. Russia and the US are modernising their nuclear arsenals. Moscow is adopting a threatening stance, and NATO guarantees are being weakened by an unpredictable US president. Thus nuclear weapons have become a topic of discussion across Europe. 

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