Thirty-six million Africans have left their countries of origin and moved to other African countries seeking better economic conditions or fleeing from wars and famine. One of the structural causes of these flows is the demographic explosion. When compounded by food shortages resulting from climate change and global warming, certain areas of the continent become uninhabitable. The routes along which they migrate often follow the old caravan routes, where traces can be found of previous periods of climate adaptation. The political answer of the African Union has been the introduction of the ECOWAS passport – agreed between 16 countries in West Africa and the six countries in the East African Community. This type of passport has been devised to remove barriers to the circulation of people and goods and in 2018 it will be granted to all citizens of the member countries. This political and symbolic decision is also designed to fight the development of the black market and migrant abuse, besides representing a tangible step towards a utopic United States of Africa.

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